Although these are legitimate concerns, it should be recalled that the SACU agreement is a product of lengthy negotiations with other Member States and that this limits the government to what it can bring into the agreement. There is a need to improve consultations between government and stakeholders. According to Marion Hummel, SACOBs International Trade and Investment Executive, sacob often does not have enough time from the government to review and comment on important issues concerning the business. (43) SacOB, in collaboration with other organisations, faces capacity constraints and cannot make quality contributions without sufficient time for research and debate. Egypt joined the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) in February 1999. Although not yet operational, the Customs Union was launched in June 2009. As a result, tariffs on trade between Egypt and other COMESA member States have been eliminated for some parts and reduced for others. The agreement contains, inter alia, provisions on rules of origin, customs procedures and cooperation on a number of issues. The Board on Tariffs and Trade Act replaced the BTI with the Board on Tariffs and Trade (BTT) in September 1986. (9) In 1992, a Dumping Investigation Directorate was established within the Ministry of Trade and Industry (DTI) to support the BTT through anti-dumping and countervailing investigations on its behalf. (10) In 1992, the BTT published a guide on policy and procedural measures to be taken against international unfair trading practices: dumping, subsidies and other forms of disruptive competition. In 1995, a second guide, Guide to the Policy and Procedure with Regard to Action against Unfair International Trade Practices: dumping and subsidized export, followed.

However, the latter guide was withdrawn from the South African Customs Union (SACU) in 1996. (11) (b) After careful consideration of the plan and timetable contained in an interim agreement referred to in paragraph 5, the Parties shall find, in consultation with the Parties to this Agreement and with due regard to the information provided in accordance with point (a), that it is not likely that this Agreement will lead to the establishment of a customs union or free trade area within the time limit laid down in the Regulation. Parties who make recommendations to the parties or that such a period is not appropriate, shall make recommendations to the parties. The Parties may not maintain or bring into force this Agreement unless they are prepared to amend it in accordance with these Recommendations. Recognizing the contribution to the expansion of world trade, which can be made through closer integration between the economies of the contracting parties to these agreements, responsibility for remedial measures in anti-dumping policy was assumed by the Board on Trade and Industries (BTI) in September 1923. . . .