The agreement recognizes that the principles and obligations of the GATT apply to the activities of government-mandated regulators for early shipping. Obligations imposed on the governments of ISP users include non-discrimination, transparency, protection of confidential business information, prevention of undue delays, the application of specific guidelines for the implementation of price controls and the prevention of conflicts of interest by ISP agencies. The agreement contains provisions to deal with possible circumvention of obligations through transshipments, embezzlement, inaccurate information about the land or place of origin and falsification of official documents. On January 1, 1994, a free trade agreement, known as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or « Agreement »), came into force between the United States, Canada and Mexico. Among the many commercial conditions of the agreement is a chapter on intellectual property. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), U.S. – Can. – Mex, pt. 6, 17, 17 December 1992, 32 I.L.M 289 (1993). Because they relate to copyright, NAFTA`s intellectual property provisions require each Member State to comply with its obligations under important international agreements, including the Bern Convention and the Geneva Convention. NAFTA, art.
The Berne Convention provides, among other things, for protection of copyright without protection, including formalities such as communication and registration. Between January 1, 1978 and March 1, 1989, before joining Bern, the United States required that all published works respect copyright in order for these works to be copyrighted; without this announcement, a published book was made public. In order to harmonize the protection of intellectual property rights around the world and to promote the application of these provisions, countries have entered into an agreement on intellectual property rights () called « Intellectual Property Rights Aspects » (TRIPS). The TRIPS agreement aims to promote trade and protect writers, inventors and businesses from the theft of their hard work and investment. The 1994 Uruguay Round Agreement (URAA) transposes the Uruguay Round (GATT) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which contains an agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS). Several provisions of the URAA amend U.S. copyright in 17 U.S.C. 104A, 109 (b); The URAA also adds, under Title 17, a new chapter 11 and Title 18 a new section 2319 a). The effective date for the restoration of copyright for works originating in currently eligible countries is January 1, 1996. The agreement defines the criteria for « serious harm » and the factors to be considered in determining the effects of imports. The protective measure should only be applied to the extent necessary to prevent or repair serious injuries and facilitate adaptation. When quantitative restrictions are introduced, they should normally reduce import volumes below the annual average in the last three representative years for which statistics are available, unless there is clearly justification that another level is needed to prevent or remedy serious harm.
The 20 agreements were signed in Marrakech in April 1994, the Marrakech agreement. Part III of the agreement provides for the obligation for Member State governments to provide procedures and remedies in accordance with their domestic law to ensure that intellectual property rights can be effectively enforced by foreign rights holders and their own nationals. Procedures should allow effective measures to be taken to combat the violation of intellectual property rights, but be fair and equitable, not unnecessarily complicated or costly, and not lead to undue delays or unjustified delays. They should allow for judicial review of final administrative decisions. There is no obligation to create a legal system that is different from the one that governs the application of legislation in the